Glycine max (Soy bean)
 

Ozawa, M., T. Ninomiya, T. Ohara, Y. Doi, K. Uchida, T. Shirota, K. Yonemot, T. Kitazono and  Y. Kiyohara. 2013. Dietary patterns and risk of dementia in an elderly Japanese population: the Hisayama Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 9, 5: 1076-1082.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, there are no previous reports that assessed the association between dietary patterns and risk of dementia in Asian populations.

OBJECTIVE: We investigated dietary patterns and their potential association with risk of incident dementia in a general Japanese population.

DESIGN: A total of 1006 community-dwelling Japanese subjects without dementia, aged 60-79 y, were followed up for a median of 15 y. The reduced rank regression procedure was used to efficiently determine their dietary patterns. Estimated risk conferred by a particular dietary pattern on the development of dementia was computed by using a Cox proportional hazards model.

RESULTS: Seven dietary patterns were extracted; of these, dietary pattern 1 was correlated with high intakes of soybeans and soybean products, vegetables, algae, and milk and dairy products and a low intake of rice. During the follow-up, 271 subjects developed all-cause dementia. Of these individuals, 144 subjects had Alzheimer disease (AD), and 88 subjects had vascular dementia (VaD). After adjustment for potential confounders, risks of development of all-cause dementia, AD, and VaD were reduced by 0.66 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.95), 0.65 (95% CI: 0.40, 1.06), and 0.45 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.91), respectively, in subjects in the highest quartile of score for dietary pattern 1 compared with subjects in the lowest quartile.

CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that a higher adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by a high intake of soybeans and soybean products, vegetables, algae, and milk and dairy products and a low intake of rice is associated with reduced risk of dementia in the general Japanese population.

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Kamel, H. H. 2013. Role of phyto-oestrogens in ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2115, 13: 7-9.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To study the role of a phyto-oestrogen, Cimicifuga racimosa extract (Klimadynon(®), Bionorica, Neumarkt i.d.OBf., Germany), in ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled trial in Minia University Hospital, Minia, Egypt. One hundred women with PCOS were allocated into one of two groups: one group (n=50) received clomiphene citrate 100mg daily for 5 days, and the other group (n=50) received C. racimosa 20mg daily for 10 days. Both groups received medication starting from the second day of the cycle for three consecutive cycles, during which changes in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), FSH/LH ratio, progesterone, endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate were measured.

RESULTS: The groups were similar in terms of age, clinical presentation and hormonal levels before treatment. Following treatment, significant favourable changes in LH level and FSH/LH ratio (p=0.007 and 0.06, respectively) were seen in the Klimadynon group. In this group the progesterone level was higher from the first treatment cycle, indicating better ovulation (p=0.0001), and endometrial thickness was greater (p=0.0004). The pregnancy rate was higher in the Klimadynon group but the difference between the groups was not significant (p=0.1).

CONCLUSION: Phyto-oestrogen can be used as an alternative to clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

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Bouchenak, M. and M. Lamri-Senhadji. 2013. Nutritional Quality of Legumes, and Their Role in Cardiometabolic Risk Prevention: A Review. J Med Food. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract: Legumes (including alfalfa, clover, lupins, green beans and peas, peanuts, soybeans, dry beans, broad beans, dry peas, chickpeas, and lentils) represent an important component of the human diet in several areas of the world, especially in the developing countries, where they complement the lack of proteins from cereals, roots, and tubers. In some regions of the world, legume seeds are the only protein supply in the diet. The health benefits of legume consumption have received rising interest from researchers, and their consumption and production extends worldwide. Among European countries, higher legume consumption is observed around the Mediterranean, with per capita daily consumption between 8 and 23 g, while in Northern Europe, the daily consumption is less than 5 g per capita. The physiological effects of different legumes vary significantly. These differences may result from the polysaccharides composition, in particular, the quantity and variety of dietary fibers and starch, protein make-up, and variability in phytochemical content. The majority of legumes contain phytochemicals: bioactive compounds, including enzyme inhibitors, phytohemagglutinins (lectins), phytoestrogens, oligosaccharides, saponins, and phenolic compounds, which play metabolic roles in humans who frequently consume these foods. Dietary intake of phytochemicals may provide health benefits, protecting against numerous diseases or disorders, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure and inflammation. The synergistic or antagonistic effects of these phytochemical mixtures from food legumes, their interaction with other components of the diet, and the mechanism of their action have remained a challenge with regard to understanding the role of phytochemicals in health and diseases. Their mitigating effects and the mechanism of their action need to be further addressed if we are to understand the role of phytochemicals in health and diseases. This review provides an overview of the nutritional quality of legumes and their potential contribution in cardiometabolic risk prevention.

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Zucali, P. A., M. Simonelli, F. De Vincenzo, E. Lorenzi, M. Perrino, M. Bertossi, R. Finotto, S. Naimo, L. Balzarini, C. Bonifacio, I. Timofeeva, G. Rossoni, G. Mazzola, A. Lambiase, C. Bordignon and A. Santoro. 2013. Phase I and pharmacodynamic study of high-dose NGR-hTNF in patients with refractory solid tumours. Br J Cancer. 108, 1: 58-63.

Abstract:

Background: NGR-hTNF exploits the peptide asparagine-glycine-arginine (NGR) for selectively targeting tumour necrosis factor (TNF) to CD13-overexpressing tumour vessels. Maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of NGR-hTNF was previously established at 45 μg m(-2) as 1-h infusion, with dose-limiting toxicity being grade 3 infusion-related reactions. We explored further dose escalation by slowing infusion rate (2-h) and using premedication (paracetamol).Methods: Four patients entered each of 12 dose levels (n=48; 60-325 μg m(-2)). Pharmacokinetics, soluble TNF receptors (sTNF-R1/sTNF-R2), and volume transfer constant (K(trans)) by dynamic imaging (dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI)) were assessed pre- and post-treatment. Results: Common related toxicity included grade 1/2 chills (58%). Maximum-tolerated dose was not reached. Both C(max) (P<0.0001) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (P=0.0001) increased proportionally with dose. Post-treatment levels of sTNF-R2 peaked significantly higher than sTNF-R1 (P<0.0001). Changes in sTNF-Rs, however, did not differ across dose levels, suggesting a plateau effect in shedding kinetics. As best response, 12/41 evaluable patients (29%) had stable disease. By DCE-MRI, 28/37 assessed patients (76%) had reduced post-treatment K(trans) values (P<0.0001), which inversely correlated with NGR-hTNF C(max) (P=0.03) and baseline K(trans) values (P<0.0001). Lower sTNF-R2 levels and greater K(trans) decreases after first cycle were associated with improved survival. Conclusion: asparagine-glycine-arginine-hTNF can be safely escalated at doses higher than MTD and induces low receptors shedding and early antivascular effects.

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Lima, S. M., S. S. Yamada, B. F. Reis, S. Postigo, M. A. Galvão da Silva and T. Aoki. 2013. Effective treatment of vaginal atrophy with isoflavone vaginal gel. Maturitas. [Epub Ahead of Print]

Abstract:

OBJETIVE: To assess efficacy and tolerability of a isoflavone (Glycine max L. Merr.) vaginal gel to the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women.

METHODS: The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Ninety women were treated for 12 weeks with isoflavone vaginal gel 4% (1g/day) and a placebo gel and conjugated equine estrogen cream (0.3mg/day). After 4 and 12 weeks, the vaginal atrophy symptoms were classified at none, mild, moderate and severe and the vaginal cytology were taken to determine the maturation value. The endometrial safety (by transvaginal ultrasonography) was evaluated through at screening and the end of the trial.

RESULTS: Isoflavone vaginal gel appears to be effective for relief of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia symptons and an increase in the intermediate and superficial cells was noted. These results were similar to the effects with use of conjugated equine estrogens and superior to placebo gel. No changes in endometrial thickness, sera FSH and estradiol levels were observed at study endpoint.

CONCLUSION: Glycine max (L.) Merr. at 4% vaginal gel on a daily basis in postmenopausal women led to improvements in vaginal atrophy symptoms and a significant increase in cell maturation values. Isoflavones proved good treatment options for relief of vulvovaginal symptoms especially in women who do not wish to use hormonal therapy or have contra-indications for this treatment.

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Yimit, D., P. Hoxur, N. Amat, K. Uchikawa and N. Yamaguchi. 2012. Effects of soybean peptide on immune function, brain function, and neurochemistry in healthy volunteers. Nutrition. 28, 2: 154-159.

Abstract:

Objective; Soybeans, an excellent source of dietary peptides, have beneficial effects on health. We investigated the effect of the soybean peptide on immune function, brain function, and neurochemistry in healthy volunteers.

METHODS: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to analyze brain cerebral blood flow. The A and DA levels in the serum were analyzed by ELISA kit. The total number of leukocytes was recorded with a standard counter. Flow cytometry was used to assess lymphocyte subset levels.

RESULTS: Cell numbers were upregulated in the group that had fewer leukocytes but downregulated in the group with more leukocytes. For the lymphocyte-rich type, lymphocyte counts tended to decrease, accompanied by an increase in granulocyte numbers. For the granulocyte-rich type, granulocyte counts tended to increase, but lymphocyte counts also increased. The numbers of CD11b(+) cells and CD56(+) cells increased significantly. Soybean peptide decreased the adrenalin level in plasma but increased the level of dopamine. Near-infrared spectroscopy showed significant increases in the amplitudes of θ, α-2, and β-L frequency bands after the ingestion of peptides.

CONCLUSION: Soybean peptides can modulate cellular immune systems, regulate neurotransmitters, and boost brain function.

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Llanezaa, P.,  C. González, J. Fernandez-Iñarrea, A. Alonso, F. Diaz, I. Arnott and J. Ferrer-Barriendos. 2011. Soy isoflavones, diet and physical exercise modify serum cytokines in healthy obese postmenopausal women. Phytomedicine 18: 245-250.

Abstract:

Objectives: Evaluate the effect of diet, physical exercise, and a daily oral intake of a soy isoflavones extract (Fisiogen®) contained 200mg of Glycine max, which corresponded to 80mg of isoflavone (60.8mg of genistein, 16mg of daidzein and 3.2mg of glicitein) on leptin and other adipokines plasma levels in healthy obese postmenopausal women.

Methods: A multicentric randomized longitudinal prospective cohort study was conducted in a sample of 87 healthy obese postmenopausal women. Patients were randomly assigned to a 1200 kcal diet and exercise group (control group) or a group of 1200 kcal diet, exercise, and daily oral intake of daily oral intake of a soy isoflavones extract (Fisiogen®) contained 200mg of Glycine max, which corresponded to 80mg of isoflavone (60.8mgof genistein, 16mgof daidzein and 3.2mgof glicitein) (soy isoflavones group) along 6 months. Main outcome measures were: anthropometric measures, body composition, leptin, adiponectin, TNF-alpha, homocysteine, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, lipid profile and oestradiol serum levels, Kupperman index and Cervantes Scale.

Results: Mean serum leptin and TNF-alpha levels declined after 6 months in both groups of the study, but only women in the soy isoflavones group showed a significant increase of mean serum levels of adiponectin.

Conclusions: Diet, physical exercise and daily oral intake of a soy isoflavones extract (Fisiogen®) contained 200mg of Glycine max, which corresponded to 80mgof isoflavone (60.8mgof genistein, 16mgof daidzein and 3.2mg of glicitein) have a beneficial effect on serum leptin, adiponectin and TNF- in healthy obese postmenopausal women after 6 months of treatment.

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Blake, C., K. M. Fabick, K. D. R. Setchell, T. D. Lund and E. D. Lephart. 2011. Neuromodulation by soy diets or equol: Antidepressive & anti-obesity-like influences, age- & hormone-dependent effects. BMC Neuroscience  12:28.

Abstract:

Background: Soy-derived isoflavones potentially protect against obesity and depression. In five different studies we examined the influence of soy-containing diets or equol injections on depression, serotonin levels, body weight gain (BW) and white adipose tissue (WAT) deposition in female Long-Evans rats at various stages of life [rats were intact, ovariectomized or experienced natural ovarian failure (NOF)].

Results: In general, animals fed a soy-rich diet (Phyto-600) and/or administered equol (@ 5 mg/kg/day) displayed significant decreases in BW and WAT compared to a low-soy diet. When equol was injected alone (5 mg/kg/day), experiments 1, 4, and 5 demonstrated that body weight was significantly decreased. Equol has body weight control effects in females that are dependent on ovarian status and/or age of diet initiation. Experiments 1-4 all displayed no significant differences in depressive-related behavior as measured by the Prosolt forced swim test (PFST) when soy-rich (Phyto-600) or low-soy diets (Phyto-low) or equol treatments (5 mg/kg/day) were tested in female rats at various ages or hormonal status. Results of all the experiments are not presented here due to space limitations, but data from experiment 5 are presented. From conception female rats were exposed to either: a) a soy-rich (Phyto-600) or b) low-soy diet (Phyto-low). After 290 days all rats experienced NOF. At 330 days-old the animals were examined in the Porsolt forced swim test (PFST). One month later a second PFST was performed [after Phyto-low fed animals were injected with equol (5 mg/kg/day) for one week prior to the second PFST]. At the first PFST, serotonin and mobility levels were significantly decreased in the Phyto-low fed animals compared to animals that consumed the Phyto-600 diet. After equol injections at the second PFST, mobility and serotonin levels significantly increased in aged NOF rats fed the Phyto-low diet (to levels comparable to Phyto-600 fed animals).

Conclusions: Consumption of dietary isoflavones or equol exposure in rats has body weight controlling effects and equol specifically may have antidepressant potential dependent upon diet initiation and/or dosage of treatments. The current study demonstrates that equol is able to decrease body weight, abdominal WAT, and depressive-related behavior. While other factors and mechanisms may play a role, in part, the present results provide a greater understanding of how isoflavonoid molecules modulate the brain’s influence on behavior.

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D. J. Jenkins et al. 2011. Effect of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods given at 2 levels of intensity of dietary advice on serum lipids in hyperlipidemia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 306, 8: 831-839.

Abstract:

Context: Combining foods with recognized cholesterol-lowering properties (dietary portfolio) has proven highly effective in lowering serum cholesterol under metabolically controlled conditions. 

Objective: To assess the effect of a dietary portfolio administered at 2 levels of intensity on percentage change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) among participants following self-selected diets.

Design, Setting and Participants: A parallel-design study of 351 participants with hyperlipidemia from 4 participating academic centers across Canada (Quebec City, Toronto, Winnipeg, and Vancouver) randomized between June 25, 2007, and February 19, 2009, to 1 of 3 treatments lasting 6 months.

Intervention: Participants received dietary advice for 6 months on either a low-saturated fat therapeutic diet (control) or a dietary portfolio, for which counseling was delivered at different frequencies, that emphasized dietary incorporation of plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and nuts. Routine dietary portfolio involved 2 clinic visits over 6 months and intensive dietary portfolio involved 7 clinic visits over 6 months.

Main Outcome measures: Percentage change in serum LDL-C.

Results: In the modified intention-to-treat analysis of 345 participants, the overall attrition rate was not significantly different between treatments (18% for intensive dietary portfolio, 23% for routine dietary portfolio, and 26% for control; Fisher exact test, P = .33). The LDL-C reductions from an overall mean of 171 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 168-174 mg/dL) were -13.8% (95% CI, -17.2% to -10.3%; P < .001) or -26 mg/dL (95% CI, -31 to -21 mg/dL; P < .001) for the intensive dietary portfolio; -13.1% (95% CI, -16.7% to -9.5%; P < .001) or -24 mg/dL (95% CI, -30 to -19 mg/dL; P < .001) for the routine dietary portfolio; and -3.0% (95% CI, -6.1% to 0.1%; P = .06) or -8 mg/dL (95% CI, -13 to -3 mg/dL; P = .002) for the control diet. Percentage LDL-C reductions for each dietary portfolio were significantly more than the control diet (P < .001, respectively). The 2 dietary portfolio interventions did not differ significantly (P = .66). Among participants randomized to one of the dietary portfolio interventions, percentage reduction in LDL-C on the dietary portfolio was associated with dietary adherence (r = -0.34, n = 157, P < .001).

Conclusion: Use of a dietary portfolio compared with the low-saturated fat dietary advice resulted in greater LDL-C lowering during 6 months of follow-up.

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Cancelo Hidalgo, M. J. and C. Castelo Branco. 2011. Optimizing soy isoflavones effect in postmenopausal women: the impact of timing on climacteric symptoms. Gynecol Endocrinol. 27, 9: 696-700.

Abstract:

Background. The most common complaints during climacteric are vasomotor symptoms. A circadian rhythm has been observed when hot flashes start; however, not much information is available in this field. Aims. To analyze whether the time (morning/evening) of administration of a compound containing 60 mg of dry soy seed extract (glycine max) with 40% of total isoflavones, primrose oil and α-tocopherol modifies the effect on the climacteric syndrome. Trial design. Multicentric, observational, open, prospective, longitudinal and cross-sectional study. Subjects and methods. One thousand six hundred eighty-two postmenopausal women with climacteric symptoms were allocated in two groups in order to receive the treatment in the morning (Group 1) or in the evening (Group 2), switching administration time after 3 months. Clinical evaluation was carried out at 0, 3 and 6 months of follow-up using Blatt-Kupperman and Greene scales Results. 233 (13.9%) women dropped out from the study. Both administration times improved the climacteric symptoms after 3 and 6 months of treatment, showing a reduction in the scores of Blatt-Kupperman and Greene scales (p < 0.001). No differences between both groups during the follow-up were identified. Conclusions. The time of administration of isoflavones does not modify its effect on climacteric symptoms.

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Steinberg, F. M., M. J. Murray, R. D. Lewis, M. A. Cramer, P. Amato, R. L. Young, S. Barnes, K. L. Konzelmann, J. G. Fischer, K. J. Ellis, R. J. Shypailo, J. K. Fraley, E. O. Smith and W. W. Wong. 2011. Clinical outcomes of a 2-y soy isoflavone supplementation in menopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 93, 2: 356-367.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Soy isoflavones are naturally occurring phytochemicals with weak estrogenic cellular effects. Despite numerous clinical trials of short-term isoflavone supplementation, there is a paucity of data regarding longer-term outcomes and safety.

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of soy hypocotyl isoflavone supplementation in healthy menopausal women as a secondary outcome of a trial on bone health.

DESIGN: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-mo trial was conducted to assess the effects of daily supplementation with 80 or 120 mg aglycone equivalent soy hypocotyl isoflavones plus calcium and vitamin D on the health of 403 postmenopausal women. At baseline and after 1 and 2 y, clinical blood chemistry values were measured and a well-woman examination was conducted, which included a mammogram and a Papanicolaou test. A cohort also underwent transvaginal ultrasound measurements to assess endometrial thickness and fibroids.

RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the groups were similar. After 2 y of daily isoflavone exposure, all clinical chemistry values remained within the normal range. The only variable that changed significantly was blood urea nitrogen, which increased significantly after 2 y (P = 0.048) but not after 1 y (P = 0.343) in the supplementation groups. Isoflavone supplementation did not affect blood lymphocyte or serum free thyroxine concentrations. No significant differences in endometrial thickness or fibroids were observed between the groups. Two serious adverse events were detected (one case of breast cancer and one case of estrogen receptor-negative endometrial cancer), which was less than the expected population rate for these cancers.

CONCLUSION: Daily supplementation for 2 y with 80-120 mg soy hypocotyl isoflavones has minimal risk in healthy menopausal women.

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Reinwald S and C. M. Weaver. 2010. Soy Components vs. Whole Soy: Are We Betting Our Bones on a Long Shot?. J Nutr. 140, 12: 2312S-2317S.

Abstract; Soybeans are a good source of bone-healthy nutrients. Epidemiological studies in Asia evaluating diets containing traditional whole soy foods show a positive association with bone mineral density and fracture protection. Smaller scale intervention studies in Western nations mainly feature isolated soy protein (SP) and purified or concentrated soy isoflavones (SI) rather than whole soy foods and they have produced inconsistent results. Consumption of SP does not alter calcium (Ca) retention even though urinary Ca excretion is less in diets with SP compared with proteins higher in sulfur-containing amino acids. SI, often consumed at higher concentrations than would be available in traditional Asian diets, are not yielding the type of incontrovertible evidence that might be expected in support of their benefit to bone health. This forces one to ask whether whole soy might provide a superior effect on bone.

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Okabe, Y., T. Shimazu and H. Tanimoto. 2010. Higher bioavailability of isoflavones after a single ingestion of aglycone-rich fermented soybeans compared with glucoside-rich non-fermented soybeans in Japanese postmenopausal women. J Sci Food Agric. 91, 4: 658-663.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: There have been conflicting study results concerning how the food matrix affects the bioavailability of isoflavone aglycone and glucoside. In this study the bioavailability of isoflavones after a single ingestion of aglycone-rich fermented soybeans (Fsoy) and glucoside-rich non-fermented soybeans (Soy) was compared. Eleven healthy postmenopausal Japanese women were recruited for a randomised, double-blind, crossover trial and consumed Fsoy or Soy powder dissolved in hot water. Blood samples were collected 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h and urine samples from 0 to 48 h after ingestion of the powders. The Fsoy and Soy powders ingested had the same total isoflavone content (95 µmol), but the former was rich in aglycone (90.6 µmol) while the latter was rich in glucoside (81.9 µmol).

RESULTS: Serum concentrations of total isoflavones after 1-4 h were significantly higher in the Fsoy group than in the Soy group. The Fsoy group showed significantly higher maximum concentration (Cmax: 2.79 ± 0.13 vs 1.74 ± 0.13 µmol L(-1)) and area under the curve (AUC(0-24 h): 23.78 ± 2.41 vs 19.95 ± 2.03 µmol day L(-1)) and lower maximum concentration time (Tmax: 1.00 ± 0.00 vs 5.00 ± 0.67 h) compared with the Soy group. The cumulative urinary excretion of total isoflavones after 2 h was significantly higher in the Fsoy group than in the Soy group. Individual isoflavones (daidzein, genistein and glycitein) showed similar trends to total isoflavones. Equol (a metabolite from daidzein) did not differ between the two groups.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrated that the isoflavones of aglycone-rich Fsoy were absorbed faster and in greater amounts than those of glucoside-rich Soy in postmenopausal Japanese women.

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Beaton, L. K., B. L. McVeigh, B. L. Dillingham , J. W. Lampe and A. M. Duncan. Soy protein isolates of varying isoflavone content do not adversely affect semen quality in healthy young men. Fertil Steril. 94, 5: 1717-1722.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of consumption of soy protein of varying isoflavone content on parameters of semen quality in healthy young men.

DESIGN: Randomized crossover intervention.

SETTING: University campus.

PATIENT(S): Healthy adult men (age 27.5 ± 5.67 years, body mass index 25.4 ± 3.14 kg/m(2)).

INTERVENTION(S): Milk protein isolate (MPI), low-isoflavone soy protein isolate (low-iso SPI; 1.64 ± 0.19 mg isoflavones/day, expressed as aglycone equivalents), and high-isoflavone soy protein isolate (high-iso SPI; 61.7 ± 7.35 mg isoflavones/day, expressed as aglycone equivalents) for 57 days each separated by 28-day washout periods.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Urinary isoflavones were measured from 24-hour urine samples collected on days 54-56 of each treatment period. Semen quality parameters (semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm count, sperm percent motility, total motile sperm count, sperm morphology) were measured from semen samples collected on days 1 and 57 of each treatment period.

RESULT(S): Urinary isoflavones were significantly higher after consumption of high-iso SPI compared with the low-iso SPI and MPI. Semen parameters, including semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm count, sperm percent motility, total motile sperm count, and sperm morphology, were not significantly affected by consumption of either low- or high-iso SPI compared with MPI.

CONCLUSION(S): Consumption of soy protein of low or high isoflavone content does not adversely affect semen quality in a sample of healthy adult men.

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Liu, B., L. Qin, A. Liu, S. Uchiyama, T. Ueno, X. Li and P. Wang. 2010. Prevalence of the equol-producer phenotype and its relationship with dietary isoflavone and serum lipids in healthy Chinese adults. J Epidemiol. 20, 5: 377-384.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes have beneficial effects on a range of health outcomes. We investigated the prevalence of equol producers and the relationship of equol phenotype with habitual isoflavone consumption and serum lipid concentrations in 200 Chinese adults in Beijing.

METHODS: After the baseline survey and dietary records, 200 healthy adults in Beijing were challenged with a soy-isoflavone supplement for 3 days; 24-hour urine samples were collected before and after the challenge. Isoflavones and their metabolites in urine were measured to determine equol phenotype. Serum lipids, uric acid, and other biochemical markers were also measured.

RESULTS: Only 26.8% of the participants excreted equol when on a regular diet, as compared with 60.4% after the challenge. After the challenge, urinary isoflavonoid excretion increased in all participants, while equol excretion increased only in equol producers. Isoflavone intake was correlated with urinary isoflavone (range r = 0.49-0.58, P < 0.01). As compared with nonproducers, equol producers were less likely to consume cereals (P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between serum lipids and isoflavone intake. Serum lipids were not significantly affected by equol phenotype.

CONCLUSIONS: Urinary equol excretion was detected in about 25% of participants under their usual dietary conditions. Their potential to produce equol was increased after the challenge. Urinary isoflavone levels may serve as a useful biomarker for isoflavone intake in populations. We observed an association between equol phenotype and cereal intake. Our findings also suggest that dietary isoflavone intake has no significant effect on serum lipids in healthy participants, regardless of equol phenotype.

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Dalbeth, N., S. Wong , G. D. Gamble, A. Horne, B. Mason, B. Pool, L. Fairbanks, F. M. McQueen, J. Cornish, I. R. Reid and K. Palmano. Acute effect of milk on serum urate concentrations: a randomised controlled crossover trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 69, 9: 1677-1682.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVES: Recent observational studies have highlighted the beneficial role of dairy ingestion in gout prevention. The aims of this study were to determine the acute effects of milk ingestion on serum urate concentrations and examine the mechanisms of these effects.

METHODS: This was a short-term randomised controlled crossover trial of milk in 16 healthy male volunteers. The following products were tested (each 80 g protein): soy control, early season skim milk, late season skim milk (containing high concentrations of orotic acid, a naturally occurring uricosuric agent) and ultrafiltrated MPC 85 skim milk. Each participant received a single dose of each product in random order. Serum and urine were obtained immediately before and then hourly over a 3 h period after ingestion of each study product.

RESULTS: Ingestion of the soy control led to an increase in serum urate concentrations by approximately 10%. In contrast, ingestion of all milks led to a decrease in serum urate concentrations by approximately 10% (p<0.0001). All products (including soy) rapidly increased the fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA). Late season milk led to a greater increase in FEUA than MPC 85 (p=0.02) and early season milk (p=0.052). There were no differences over time in serum oxypurines or purine-containing nucleosides. However, all products increased the fractional excretion of xanthine.

CONCLUSIONS: Intact milk has an acute urate-lowering effect. These data provide further rationale for long-term intervention studies to determine whether such dietary interventions have an adjunctive role in the management of individuals with hyperuricaemia and gout.

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Wong, J. M., C. W. Kendall, R. de Souza, A. Emam, A. Marchie, E. Vidgen, C. Holmes and D. J.  Jenkins. 2010. The effect on the blood lipid profile of soy foods combined with a prebiotic: a randomized controlled trial. Metabolism. 59, 9: 1331-1340.

Abstract: The value of soy protein as part of the cholesterol-lowering diet has been questioned by recent studies. The apparent lack of effect may relate to the absence of dietary factors that increase colonic fermentation and potentiate the cholesterol-lowering effect of soy. Therefore, unabsorbable carbohydrates (prebiotics) were added to the diet with the aim of increasing colonic fermentation and so potentially increasing the hypocholesterolemic effect of soy. Twenty-three hyperlipidemic adults (11 male, 12 female; 58 +/- 7 years old; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], 4.18 +/- 0.58 mmol/L) completed three 4-week diet intervention phases-a low-fat dairy diet and 10 g/d prebiotic (oligofructose-enriched inulin, a fermentable carbohydrate), a soy food-containing diet (30 g/d soy protein, 61 mg/d isoflavones from soy foods) and 10 g/d placebo (maltodextrin), and a soy food-containing diet with 10 g/d prebiotic--in a randomized controlled crossover study. Intake of soy plus prebiotic resulted in greater reductions in LDL-C (-0.18 +/- 0.07 mmol/L, P = .042) and in ratio of LDL-C to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.28 +/- 0.11, P = .041) compared with prebiotic. In addition, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased on soy plus prebiotic compared with prebiotic (0.06 +/- 0.02 mmol/L, P = .029). Differences in bifidobacteria, total anaerobes, aerobes, and breath hydrogen did not reach significance. Soy foods in conjunction with a prebiotic resulted in significant improvements in the lipid profile, not seen when either prebiotic or soy alone was taken. Coingestion of a prebiotic may potentiate the effectiveness of soy foods as part of the dietary strategy to lower serum cholesterol.

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Christie, D. R., J. Grant, B. E. Darnell, V. R. Chapman, A. Gastaldelli and C. K. Sites. 2010. Metabolic effects of soy supplementation in postmenopausal Caucasian and African American women: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 203, 2: 153. e1-9.

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effect of daily soy supplementation on abdominal fat, glucose metabolism, and circulating inflammatory markers and adipokines in obese, postmenopausal Caucasian and African American women.

STUDY DESIGN: In a double-blinded controlled trial, 39 postmenopausal women were randomized to soy supplementation or to a casein placebo without isoflavones. In all, 33 completed the study and were analyzed. At baseline and at 3 months, glucose disposal and insulin secretion were measured using hyperglycemic clamps, body composition and body fat distribution were measured by computed tomographic scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and serum levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, leptin, and adiponectin were measured by immunoassay.

RESULTS: Soy supplementation reduced total and subcutaneous abdominal fat and interleukin-6. No difference between groups was noted for glucose metabolism, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, leptin, or adiponectin.

CONCLUSION: Soy supplementation reduced abdominal fat in obese postmenopausal women. Caucasians primarily lost subcutaneous and total abdominal fat, and African Americans primarily lost total body fat.

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Bazin, R., F. Flament, A. Colonna, R. Le Harzic, R. Bückle, B. Piot, F. Laizé, M. Kaatz, K. König, J. W. Fluhr. 2010. Clinical study on the effects of a cosmetic product on dermal extracellular matrix components using a high-resolution multiphoton tomograph. Skin Res Technol. 16, 3: 305-310.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of selected plant extracts in a cosmetic cream on the dermal network components after a 3-month treatment using an in vivo multiphoton tomographic device.

METHODS: Twenty-four Caucasian women aged between 45 and 65 applied randomly a cosmetic emulsion B containing active ingredients (soy and jasmine) twice a day on one arm and its vehicle A (without active ingredients) on the other arm during 3 months. Measurements were performed on the internal side of the forearm before starting the treatment (T0), after 4 week (T4) and 12 weeks (T12) treatment. Measurements consisted of a multi-layers acquisitions using a multiphoton tomograph with subcellular resolution. Optical sections (about 6 microm thick) were recorded from 0 to about 200 microm using two different wavelengths: 760 and 820 nm. To compare the series of images and obtain an objective quantification of the signal of second harmonic generation (SHG) and autofluorescence, the method used consisted of taking the integrated brightness of an image (same rectangular area for all images) as a measure of the signal. Following this step, a ratio between brightness of images from the area treated with cream A or B and brightness of untreated area was calculated and used as an assessment of treatment efficacy. The parameter used for statistical analysis (variance analysis) is the difference before and after 12 weeks of treatment by either cream A or B of the signal ratios calculated in the upper dermis (118-130 microm) and those from a deeper region of the upper dermis (165-178 microm).

RESULTS: Signals (autofluorescence+SHG) of extracellular matrix do not change significantly with time (weeks 0, 4 and 12) when cream A (vehicle with no active ingredient) is applied. Treatment with cream B results in an enhancement in the signal level of extracellular matrix at week 12. The comparison of signals, in both areas (118-130 microm and 160-178 microm), show an higher increase in the deeper region than in the more superficial one for product B while we do not notice any change with product A.

CONCLUSION: The multiphoton tomograph provided excellent high-resolution images, which describe clearly the different skin layers, single cells and extracellular matrix components in all the 24 volunteers. Statistic analyses reveal a real effect for product B with selected plant extracts, known to increase collagen synthesis. Changes observed are characteristics of modifications in dermal collagen and elastin content. To our knowledge, it is the first time that it was possible to demonstrate in vivo the effect of a cosmetic product on the superficial dermal layer, in a non-invasive and non-destructive process, i.e. without cutting the skin.

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Tanaka, S., K. Narusawa, H. Onishi, M. Miura, A. Hijioka, Y. Kanazawa, S. Nishida, S. Ikeda and T. Nakamura. 2010. Lower osteocalcin and osteopontin contents of the femoral head in hip fracture patients than osteoarthritis patients. Osteoporos Int. [Epub ahead of print].

Abstract:

In patients with femoral neck fracture, clinical factors, bone metabolism markers (in serum, urine, and bone), bone mineral density, radiographic parameters, and bone histomorphometric parameters were investigated to detect determinants of fragility fracture. The osteocalcin/deoxypyridinoline ratio and osteopontin/calcium ratio of cortical bone were selected as significant predictors.

INTRODUCTION: Measurement of bone mineral density is widely used to assess bone strength, but this also depends on other bone components and on bone structure. The objective of this study was to investigate risk factors for fracture related to bone quality, the patient's history, and the patient's lifestyle.

METHODS: Twenty-one patients with femoral neck fracture and 18 patients with osteoarthritis were enrolled. Blood and urine samples were collected on admission to hospital, and bone samples were obtained from femoral necks resected during surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using osteoarthritis and femoral neck fracture as combined variables to assess the influence of alcohol or coffee intake, eating natto (fermented soybeans), osteocalcin and calcium concentrations, the osteocalcin/deoxypyridinoline ratio and osteopontin/calcium ratios of cortical bone and cancellous bone, various bone histomorphometric parameters, the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and the intact contralateral femoral neck, and various radiographic parameters of the spine

RESULTS: By forward stepwise multivariate analysis, the osteocalcin/deoxypyridinoline and osteopontin/calcium ratios of cortical bone were selected as significant factors for fracture (the odds ratios were 0.493 and <0.001, respectively; both P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: A decrease of osteopontin and osteocalcin in bone is important for promoting vulnerability to hip fracture.

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Lunny, C. A. and S. N. Fraser. 2010. The use of complementary and alternative medicines among a sample of Canadian menopausal-aged women. J Midwifery Womens Health. 55, 4: 335-343.

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: Despite questionable efficacy and safety, many women use a variety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies to relieve menopause symptoms.

METHODS: We examined the determinants and use of CAM therapies among a sample of menopausal-aged women in Canada by using a cross-sectional Web-based survey.

RESULTS: Four hundred twenty-three women who were contacted through list serves, e-mail lists, and Internet advertisements provided complete data on demographics, use of CAM, therapies, and menopausal status and symptoms. Ninety-one percent of women reported trying CAM therapies for their symptoms. Women reported using an average of five kinds of CAM therapies. The most common treatments were vitamins (61.5%), relaxation techniques (57.0%), yoga/meditation (37.6%), soy products (37.4%), and prayer (35.7%). The most beneficial CAM therapies reported were prayer/spiritual healing, relaxation techniques, counseling/therapy, and therapeutic touch/Reiki. Demographic factors and menopausal symptoms contributed to 14% of the variance (P < .001) in the number of CAM therapies tried.

DISCUSSION: Results support previous research showing that menopausal women have high user rates of CAM therapy and show that specific demographic factors and somatic symptomatology relate to use of CAM therapies. Health care providers can benefit from understanding the determinants and use of CAM by women during the menopause transition if they are to help and provide quality care for this population.

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Eller, L. K. and R. A. Reimer. 2010. A high calcium, skim milk powder diet results in a lower fat mass in male, energy-restricted, obese rats more than a low calcium, casein, or soy protein diet. J Nutr. 140, 7: 1234-1241.

Abstract: The combination of dairy protein and dietary calcium (Ca) may enhance weight loss more effectively than either compound alone. Our purpose in this study was to determine the effect of various protein sources [skim milk powder (SMP), whey, casein, and soy protein isolate (SPI)] and 2 levels of Ca [low, 0.67% Ca (LC) or high, 2.4% Ca (HC)] on weight loss. Sixty-four 12-wk-old Sprague-Dawley, diet-induced obese rats were assigned to 1 of 8 energy-restricted (ER) diets for 4 wk with 1 of the 4 protein sources and either LC or HC concentrations. Rats were ER to 70% of the ad libitum food and energy intake of a reference group (n = 8) fed the AIN-93M diet. The interaction between dietary protein and Ca affected final body weight and fat mass (FM) (P < 0.05). FM was less in rats fed SMP-HC than in those fed casein-LC or SPI-LC. Lean body mass was greater in rats fed SMP than in those fed whey. Rats fed HC diets had a lower plasma glucagon area under the curve (AUC) than those fed LC diets. The blood glucose AUC, homeostatic model of insulin resistance, and the expression of certain hepatic genes involved in energy metabolism were affected by protein and Ca. These data suggest that consuming a diet containing SMP and HC is associated with a lower FM in obese, male, ER rats than in diets containing casein or SPI and LC; however, the role of SMP and Ca in glucose homeostasis remains to be determined.