Centella asiatica
 

Hernández, J. A., D. M. González, M. P. Castillo and T. F Falcón. 2012. Use of a specific anti-stretch mark cream for preventing or reducing the severity of striae gravidarum. Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Int J Cosmet Sci. 35, 3: 233-237.

Abstract: Few studies have tested the efficacy of commercially available cosmetic products for preventing striae gravidarum. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy on prevention of striae gravidarum by using a specific anti-stretch mark cream containing hydroxyprolisilane-C, rosehip oil, Centella asiatica triterpenes and vitamin E. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2009 and April 2011. Pregnant women were included and classified in treated group (emollient and moisturizer containing hydroxyprolisilane C, rosehip oil, Centella asiatica triterpenes and vitamin E) and control group (cream without the active ingredients). Overall incidence of stretch marks during pregnancy was 33.3% for the control group and 37.6% in the treated group (n.s.). Severity of previous stretch marks significantly increased in the control group during the study (17.8%, p = 0.001) but not in the treated group (6.3%, ns). In women who developed new stretch marks during the study, there was a significantly greater "difference in severity" (between baseline and maximum severity) in control group vs. treated group (0.47 [0.57] vs. 0.14 [0.60], p = 0.031). In women without previous striae, incidence of these marks was significantly lower for the treated group patients compared to control group (5.6% vs. 35%, p = 0.031, OR: 9.2 [95% CI: 1.0-83.3]). The use of the anti-stretch mark product is proved to be effective in reducing severity of the striae during pregnancy, prevents the appearance of new striae and halts progression of those already present. In women who had no striae at baseline, use of the anti-stretch mark cream was more effective than placebo in preventing new stretch marks.

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Kwon, M. C., W. Y. Choi, Y. C. Seo, J. S. Kim, C. S. Yoon, H. W. Lim, H. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn and H. Y. Lee. 2012. Enhancement of the Skin-Protective Activities of Centella asiatica L. Urban by a Nano-encapsulation Process. J Biotechnol. 157, 1: 100-106.

Abstract: Aqueous extracts of Centella asiatica L. Urban were encapsulated by an edible biopolymer, gelatin, which has no effect on their cosmetic activities. The nanoparticles were w/o-type spherical liposomes that had an average diameter of 115.0nm. The encapsulation efficiency was estimated to be approximately 67%, which was relatively high for these aqueous extracts. The nanoparticles showed lower cytotoxicity (10%) in human skin fibroblast cells than the unencapsulated crude extract (15%) at 1.0mg/ml, this was possibly because a smaller amount of the extract was present in the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles efficiently reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 in UV-irradiated cells from 136.1% to 77.6% (UV-irradiated control) and inhibited hyaluronidase expression (>60%) at a concentration of 0.5mg/ml, which was higher than the levels produced by the unencapsulated crude extracts. The nanoparticles had a very high flux through mouse skin and also remained at relatively large concentrations in the derma when compared to the unencapsulated crude extracts. These results clearly indicate that the skin-protective activities of C. asiatica were significantly improved through the nano-encapsulation process. These findings also imply that a crude extract can be used and have the same efficacy as purified compounds, which should reduce the purification process and production costs.

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da Rocha, M.D., F. P. Viegas, H. C. Campos, P. C. Nicastro, P. C. Fossaluzza, C. A. Fraga, E. J. Barreiro and C. Viegas C Jr. 2011. The role of natural products in the discovery of new drug candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders II: Alzheimer's disease. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 10, 2: 251-270.

Abstract: The present review is part II in a series (part I focuses on Parkinson's Disease) that addresses the value of natural product chemistry in the discovery of medicines for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Data reviewed document that a host of products from plant species and derivatives have neuroprotectant effects in vitro and in vivo. In addition, besides neuroprotection, natural products also demonstrate biological effects that target biochemical pathways underlying associated symptoms of neurdegnerative disorders that include cognitive impairments, energy/fatigue, mood, and anxiety. This part of the review series focuses specifically upon Alzheimer's Disease (AD). AD is postulated to result from extracellular formation of amyloid plaques and intracellular deposits of neurofibrilary tangles in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and other areas of the brain essential for cognitive function. Plaques are formed mostly from the deposition β-amyloid (Aβ), a peptide derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Filamentous tangles are formed from paired helical filaments composed of neurofilament and hyperphosphorilated tau protein, a microtubule-associated protein. In addition, environmental factors can engender the production of cytokines that are closely related to the installation of an inflammatory process that contributes to neuronal death and the development and the progression of AD. In this review we focus on the recent main contribuitions of natural products chemistry to the discovery of new chemical entities usefull to the control and prevention of AD installation and progression. More than sixteen plant species, including Ginseng, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Curcuma longa, Ginkgo biloba, Huperzia serrata, Lycoris radiate, Galanthus nivalis, Magnolia officinalis, Polygala tenuifolia, Salvia lavandulaefolia, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Coptis chinensis, Crocus sativus, Evodia rutaecarpa, Sanguisorba officinalis, Veratrum grandiflorum and Picrorhiza kurvoa, are discussed as potential sources of active extracts. In addition, more than sixty secondary metabolites are under evaluation for their efficacy on controlling symptoms and to impede the development and progression of AD.

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Jana, U., T. K. Sur, L. N. Maity, P. K. Debnath and D. Bhattacharyya. 2010. A clinical study on the management of generalized anxiety disorder with Centella asiatica. Nepal Med Coll J. 12, 1: 8-11.

Abstract: Centella asiatica is reputed for its beneficial effects in various neurological disorders. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the role of 70% hydro-ethanolic extract of Centella asiatica (CA) on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in man. Hamilton's Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was used to screen the subjects. Thirty-three participants (18 male and 15 female; average age 33 yrs) were medicated with the CA in a fixed dose regime (500 mg/capsule, twice daily, after meal). They were thoroughly investigated using standard questionnaires based on psychological rating scale at baseline (day 0), mid-term (day 30) and final (day 60). The scale also includes a number of direct queries about current levels of experienced stress. The observations revealed that, CA not only significantly (p<0.01) attenuated anxiety related disorders but it also significantly (p<0.01) reduced stress phenomenon and its correlated depression. CA further significantly (p<0.01) improved the willingness for adjustment and cognition. Results indicated that Centella asiatica may be useful in the treatment of GAD and may be used as a promising anxiolytic agent in near future.

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Mato, L., J. Wattanathorn, S. Muchimapura, T. Tongun, N. Piyawatkul, K. Yimtae, P. Thanawirattananit and B. Sripanidkulchai. 2009. Centella asiatica Improves Physical Performance and Health-related Quality of Life in Healthy Elderly Volunteer. eCAM 1-7.

Abstract; Recently, oxidative stress has been reported to contribute an important role in the decline of physical function as age advances. Numerous antioxidants can improve both physical and psychological performances resulting in the increase of health-related quality of life (HQOL).Therefore, we hypothesized that Centella asiatica, a medicinal plant reputed for nerve tonic, strength improvement and antioxidant activity, could improve the physical performance and HQOL especially in the physical satisfaction aspect, of the healthy elderly volunteer. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was performed. Eighty healthy elderly were randomly assigned to receive placebo or standardized extract of C. asiatica at doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg once daily for 90 days. The subjects were evaluated to establish baseline data of physical performance using 30-s chair stand test, hand grip test and 6-min walk test. The health-related quality of life was assessed using SF-36. These assessments were repeated every month throughout the 3-month experimental period using the aforementioned parameters. Moreover, 1 month after the cessation of C. asiatica treatment, all subjects were also evaluated using these parameters again. The results showed that after 2 months of treatment, C. asiatica at doses of 500 and 750 mg per day increased lower extremity strength assessed via the 30-s chair stand test. In addition, the higher doses of C. asiatica could improve the life satisfaction subscale within the physical function subscale. Therefore, the results from this study appear to support the traditional reputation of C. asiatica on strength improvement, especially in the lower extremities of the elderly. C. asiatica also possesses the potential to be a natural resource for vigor and strength increase, in healthy elderly persons. However, further research is essential.

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 Gao, X.-H., L. Zhang, H. Wei and H.-D. Chen. 2008. Efficacy and safety of innovative cosmeceuticals. Clinics in Dermatology 26: 367374.

Abstract; The research and development of cosmeceuticals is booming in recent years. Many substances, either from botanical, animal, or chemically synthesized sources, are tested or investigated as the active ingredients in cosmeceuticals. The interactions between cosmeceuticals and skin are complex, depending on the specific composites in cosmeceutical products, condition of the skin or general health status of a subject, and the environment where the action occurs. As such, careful preclinical or clinical evaluation of efficacy and safety is a prerequisite for the development of a specific cosmeceutical product. This article reviews some of the ingredients that are currently in use or might be potential candidates in cosmeceuticals of different categories.

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Wattanathorn, J., L. Mator, S. Muchimapura,T. Tongun, O. Pasuriwong, N. Piyawatkul, K. Yimtae, B. Sripanidkulchai and J. Singkhoraard. 2008. Positive modulation of cognition and mood in the healthy elderly volunteer following the administration of Centella asiatica. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 116: 325332.

Abstract

Aims of this study: Centella asiatica has a reputation to restore decline cognitive function in traditional medicine and in animal model. However, littleevidence regarding the efficacy of Centella asiatica from systematized trials is available. Therefore, the present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the effect of Centella asiatica on cognitive function of healthy elderly volunteer.

Materials and methods: Twenty-eight healthy elderly participants received the plant extract at various doses ranging 250, 500 and 750 mg once daily for 2 months. Cognitive performance was assessed using the computerized test battery and event-related potential whereas mood was assessed using BondLader visual analogue scales prior to the trial and after single, 1 and 2 months after treatment.

Results: The results showed that the high dose of the plant extract enhanced working memory and increased N100 component amplitude of event-related potential. Improvements of self-rated mood were also found following the Centella asiatica treatment.

Conclusion: Therefore, the present findings suggest the potential of Centella asiatica to attenuate the age-related decline in cognitive function and mood disorder in the healthy elderly. However, the precise mechanism(s) underlying these effects still require further investigation.

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GRIMALDI, R.,  F. DE PONTI, L. DANGELO, M. CARAVAGGI, G. GUIDI, S. LECCHINI, G.M. FRIGO and A. CREMA. 1990. PHARMACOKINETICS OF THE TOTAL TRITERPENIC FRACTION OF CENTELLA ASIATICA AFTER SINGLE AND MULTIPLE ADMINISTRATIONS TO HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS. A NEW ASSAY FOR ASIATIC ACID. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 28: 235-241

Summary; A new HPLC assay method was used to investigate the pharmacokinetics of asiatic acid after oral administration of the total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica in single doses (30 or 60 mg) and after a 7-day treatment (30 or 60 mg twice daily). Twelve healthy volunteers received each treatment following a randomized cross-over design with trials separated by a 3-week interval. The time of peak plasma concentration was not affected by dosage difference or by treatment scheme. Differences in peak plasma concentration and area under the concentration vs. time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) calculated after 30 or 60 mg administration (single dose) were accounted for by the different dose regimen. However, after chronic treatment with both 30 and 60 mg, peak plasma concentrations, AUC0-24  and halflife were significantly higher than those observed after the corresponding single dose administration. This phenomenon could be explained by a metabolic interaction between asiatic acid and asiaticoside, which is transformed into asiatic acid in vivo.

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Wannarat,K., M. H. Tantisira and B. Tantisira. 2009. Wound Healing Effects of a Standardized Extract of Centella asiatica ECa 233 on Burn Wound in Rats. Thai J Pharmacol 31, 1: 120-123.

Abstract; The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a standardized extract of Centella asiatica ECa 233 on second degree burn wound in Male Wistar rats. Gel containing 0.05% of ECa 233 as well as a gel base was topically applied, once daily, to a wound generated on the back side of the animals by a 90°C hot plate. Evaluation of wound healing including a visual observation, an estimation of rate of wound healing and measurement of cutaneous blood flow was made at day 3 and 7 post-burning. In general wound treated with ECa 233 was seemed to heal better than those of untreated or gel base-treated groups. Rate of wound healing in rats treated with 0.05% ECa 233 gel was significantly higher than those of untreated and gel base treated groups in day 7 post-burning. In agreement with the healing rate, cutaneous blood flow on day 3, both gel base and 0.05% ECa 233 groups were increased, whereas on day 7 only in 0.05% ECa 233 gel group was increased. Thus, it is likely that increases of oxygen and nutrient brought about by an increment of cutaneous blood flow may, at least, in part, be responsible for the wound healing effects of ECa 233. However, other mechanisms that are relevant to wound healing effects of ECa 233 remain unexplored. Therefore, it is suggested that studies on effects of ECa 233 on burn wound should be further carried out.