Zingiber cassumunar
 

Niempoog, S., P. Siriarchavatana and T. Kajsongkram. 2012. The efficacy of Plygersic gel for use in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. J Med Assoc Thai. 95 Suppl 10: S113-9.

 

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: An evaluation of the efficacy of the combination of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and plai (Zingiber cassumunar) gel for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee using 1% diclofenac gel as a comparator.

MATERIAL AND METHOD: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of the combination of 4% ginger and plai extract in a gel (Plygersic gel) as compared with a 1% solution of diclofenac in patients with osteoarthritis knees. The number of participants in each group totaled fifty. The length of treatment was a 6 week period. The efficacy of the drugs was monitored by using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). The t-test was used to compare the scores before and after treatments in each group. The repeated ANOVA was used to compare the scores between the two groups.

RESULTS: Both Plygersic gel and diclofenac gel could significantly improve knee joint pain, symptoms, daily activities, sports activities and quality of life measured by KOOS following 6 weeks of treatment. In the repeated ANOVA, there were no differences in the results between the Plygersic and diclofenac gel groups.

CONCLUSION: Plygersic gel relieves joint pain and improves problematic symptoms and improves the quality of life in osteoarthritis knees during a 6 week treatment regimen with no differences to the 1% Diclofenac gel group.

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Chooluck, K., R. P. Singh, K. Sathirakul and H. Derendorf. 2012. Dermal Pharmacokinetics of Terpinen-4-ol Following Topical Administration of Zingiber cassumunar (plai) Oil. Planta Med. 78, 16: 1761-1766.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate dermal pharmacokinetics of terpinen-4-ol in rats following topical administration of plai oil derived from the rhizomes of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Unbound terpinen-4-ol concentrations in dermal tissue were measured by microdialysis. The dermal pharmacokinetic study of terpinen-4-ol was performed under non-occlusive conditions. The oil was topically applied at a dose of 2, 4, and 8 mg/cm2 plai oil corresponding to the amount of 1.0, 1.9, and 3.8 mg/cm2 terpinen-4-ol, respectively. Following topical application of the oil, terpinen-4-ol rapidly distributed into the dermis and demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics with no changes in the dose-normalized area under the concentration-time curves across the investigated dosage range. The mean percentages of free terpinen-4-ol distributed in the dermis per amount of administered were 0.39 ± 0.06 %, 0.41 ± 0.08 %, and 0.30 ± 0.03 % for 2, 4, and 8 mg/cm2 doses, respectively. The dermal pharmacokinetics of terpinen-4-ol could provide information for its further formulation development and therapy schedules.

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Pareena Chotjumlong. 2005.  Effect of Plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.) Extract on the Levels of Hyaluronan, Glycosaminoglycan and Matrix Metalloproteinases from Oral Fibroblast and Epithelial Cells. M. Sc. thesis. Chiang Mai University.

Abstract:  Plai or Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. was previously shown to possess antioxidant and potent anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of its extract on the levels of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in cultured human oral fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Cultured mediums were treated with various fractions of the solvents; water, hexane, and ethanol, or retinoic acid (RA) overnight, or left untreated. hyaluronan (HA), glycosaminoglycan (GAG), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), the major ECM components of wound healing process, were analyzed for the quantities by the ELISA-based assay, Farndale reaction, and Gelatin Zymography, respectively. Cultured fibroblasts medium, the hexane and ethanol extract of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. decreased HA and GAG levels. In addition, combination between 10 μM of RA and 12.5 μg/ml or greater of the extract significantly decreased HA levels (P < 0.05). While treatment with water extract failed to affect HA levels. The activity of MMP-2 was inhibited by high concentration of the ethanol extract, whereas RA increased the activity of enzymes. The combination of 10 μM RA and the ethanol extract of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. inhibited the effect of RA. In the opposite, HA and GAG levels were increased in cultured human oral epithelium medium. The activity of MMP-9 was inhibited by the ethanol extract, whereas RA increased the activity of the enzyme. The combination of RA and the ethanol extract of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. inhibited the effect of RA. Collectively, these data indicated the inhibitory activity of Zingiber cassumunar on HA production and MMP activities in human oral fibroblasts, but showed the opposite effects in human oral epithelial cells. The ability of the ethanol extract to reduce tissue hydration and inflammation during wound healing was suggested.

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Loupattarakasem, W., W. Kowsuwon, P. Loupattarakasem and W. Eungpinitpong. 1993. Efficacy of Zingiber cassumunar ROXB. (Plygesal) in the Treatment of Ankle sprain. Srinagarind Med J. 8, 3: 159-164.

Abstract: Phlai (Zingiber cassumunar ROXB.) is an indigenous Thai medicinal herb famous as an antiinflammatory remedy. Essential oil from this plant rhizome has been extracted and developed into a opical cream (14% phlai oil) Known as Plygesal. This double – blinded randomized cotrolled joint motions after an ankle for 7 – day daily assessments. For the ten Plygesal - treated ankles, applications of the cream twice daily significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the severity of swelling. Patients became less painful (tested by visual analogue scale) than controls after four days and taking less analgesics (paracetamol) during the first two days. The treated ankles could dorsiflex more then the placebo group, but magnitude of plantar flexion were not different between both groups. In conclusion, this phlai cream is efficacious in reducing symptoms and signs of ankle sprain that joint stability has not been violated.

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Jeenapongsa, R., K. Yoovathaworn, K. M. Sriwatanakul, U. Pongprayoon and K. Sriwatanakul. Anti-inflammatory activity of (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) butadiene from Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 87 (2-3): 143-148.

Abstract; This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) butadiene (DMPBD), isolated from Zingiber cassumunar Roxb., using in vivo and in vitro models. The results show that DMPBD dose-dependently inhibited the rat ear edema induced by ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP), arachidonic acid (AA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) and it was more potent than any other standard drugs being used. In EPP-induced edema IC (50) of DMPBD and oxyphenbutazone were 21 and 136nmol per ear, respectively. The IC(50) of DMPBD and phenidone were 60 and 2520nmol per ear, respectively, in AA-induced edema whereas DMPBD was 11 times more potent than diclofenac in TPA-induced edema (IC(50)=660 and 7200pmol per ear, respectively). DMPBD and diclofenac inhibited the rat paw edema induced by carrageenan but not by platelet activating factor (PAF). In in vitro study DMPBD, aspirin and phenidone inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation with IC (50) of 0.35, 0.43 and 0.03mM, respectively. Whereas IC (50) of these agents in ADP, AA and PAF inductions were 4.85, 3.98 and 1.30mM; 0.94, 0.13 and 0.04mM; and 1.14, 6.96 and 2.40mM, respectively. These results indicate that DMPBD possesses a potent anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of CO and LO pathways and seems to have more prominent effects on the LO pathway.

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Ozaki, Y., N. Kawahara and M. Harada. 1991. Anti-inflammatory effect of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. and its active principles. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 39, 9: 2353-2356.

Abstract; The present study was carried out to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effect of the methanol extract obtained from the rhizomes of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. and its active principles. The methanol extract was partitioned between ether and water, and then the ether-soluble fraction was extracted with n-hexane. The n-hexane-soluble fraction was chromatographed and part of the fraction was rechromatographed by silica gel column. Three compounds were isolated from the n-hexane-soluble fraction and the chemical structures of these compounds were identified as (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-1-ene, (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)butadiene and zerumbone. The anti-inflammatory activity of these fractions was investigated on carrageenin-induced edema in rats, as well as on acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and writhing symptoms in mice. The methanol extract (p.o.) showed both anti-inflammatory activity and analgesic activity. These activities shifted successively to ether-soluble and n-hexane-soluble fractions and to (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-1-ene. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory action and analgesic action of Zingiber cassumunar is the result of the (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)but-1-ene that it contains.

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Limwattananon, C., T. Rattanachotphanit, A. Cheawchanwattana, O. Waleekhachonloet, R. Giwanon, , C. Choonhakarn, B. Sripanidkulchai and  S. Sakolchai. 2008. Clinical Efficacy of Plai Gel Containing 1% Plai Oil in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Acne Vulgaris. IJPS, 4, 2: 121-133.

Abstract;  The objective of this study is to test the efficacy and safety of Plai gel containing 1% Plai oil in treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled trial was conducted in 60 healthy volunteers. The primary outcome is expressed in percentage reduction in total acne lesions (inflammatory lesions and non inflammatory lesions). Assessments were performed at week 2, 4, and 8. A percentage reduction in total acne lesions in plai group was higher than the placebo group at week 2 [6 times (95%CI: -16 to 28)] and week 4 [12 times (95%CI: -12 to 35)]. A percentage reduction in noninflammatory acne lesions in plai group was higher than the placebo group at week 2 [14 times (95%CI: -17 to 43)] and week 4 [26 times (95%CI: -4 to 64)]. However, such differences did not show statistical significance. At week 8, there were no differences between two groups. The plai group showed a significant reduction of noninflammatory acne lesions from the baseline at week 2 (45 ± 29 lesions) and week 4 (41 ± 25 lesions), while the placebo did not so. A percentage reduction in inflammatory acne lesions in plai group was lower than the placebo group at week 2 [2.9 (95%CI:-37.6 to 31.8)] and week 4 [12.1 (95%CI:-42.2 to 17.9), however, there were no significant differences. For the secondary outcome, success rate at week 8 was 39% in plai group and 31% in placebo group. However, this difference did not show statistical significance. Plai gel was safe. Adverse events were not found in this study. The compliance to use plai gel was greater than 90%. In conclusion, plai gel is promising to be used in treatment of mild to moderate acne, which the effect could be seen within the first month as compared to placebo.